Ohio State sociologists conduct research in criminology that is diverse in outcomes of interest and in its theoretical and methodological approaches. The causes and consequences of the high rate of incarceration in the U.S. is the subject of one body of research. Related research takes a political economy approach to address the question of why sentencing outcomes, and racial disparity in sentencing outcomes, varies among states in the U.S. Another stream of research examines re-entry to society after incarceration, focusing on racial disparities and the conditioning influence of neighborhood characteristics on recidivism rates. Racial disparity in homicide is the subject of other research. Several OSU sociologists have investigated in some depth adolescent risk-taking and delinquency. This research investigates the determining role of social context (defined both spatially -- "neighborhood" -- and in terms of social networks), and demonstrates the enormous impact of peers and social networks on adolescent behavior of various kinds, including criminal activity and behaviors that can be injurious to health.